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Index of Agreement

Willmott (1981) proposed an index of agreement (d) as a standardized measure of the degree of model prediction error which varies between 0 and 1. The index of agreement represents the ratio of the mean square error and the potential error. The agreement value of 1 indicates a perfect match, and 0 indicates no agreement at all. The index of agreement can detect additive and proportional differences in the observed and simulated means and variances; however, d is overly sensitive to extreme values due to the squared differences.

Index of Agreement

where Oi is the observation value and Pi is the forecast value and Obar is the average observation values and Pbar is the average forecast values.


Paste 2-columns data here (obs vs. sim). In format of excel, text, etc. Separate it with space:


Index of Agreement:

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