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Lessons of Drought

Drought Course

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Drought Course Videos

What is Drought? | Drought Lessons | Drought Course

Drought Tools in AgriMetSoft: Playlist in AgriMetSoft: Drought Lesson Videos: #What_is_Drought | #Drought Lessons | #Drought_Course === Drought Course We have decided to present a course on knowing drought. In this series of videos, I will show several presentations for addressing several vital concepts related to a drought event (as a highly hazardous weather event). These videos are included different statements as follows: What is a Drought event? How can we define drought? What are the significant causes of drought? What are the main differences between drought and aridity? What are the drought effects? What are the main classes of drought? What are drought indices? How can we calculate different drought indices? How can we apply gridded datasets or in-situ data for calculating drought indices? And several other critical contents related to drought. I invite you to see this video to find out “What are the main questions that I will address”? Tags: drought lessons,drought, drought course, hydrological drought, California drought, agricultural drought, meteorological drought, what is drought,#what_is_drought, types of drought, #types_of_drought, drought causes and effects,different types of drought,causes of drought,effects of drought,drought causes,drought definition,what is the definition of drought,what does drought mean,aridity and drought,what is aridity,drought event,drought conditions

What are drought definitions and drought effects | differences between drought and aridity

Drought Tools in AgriMetSoft: Playlist in AgriMetSoft: Drought Lesson Videos: What are #drought_definitions and #drought_effects | differences between #drought and #aridity === Drought is generally defined as “a deficiency of precipitation over an extended period, resulting in a water shortage.” More than 150 different definitions of drought are provided. A drought is an event of prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water, or groundwater. Drought definition depends on a region where it occurs there, such as: - No rain for three weeks in the UK is considered drought - More than four months without rain in Iran is not considered a drought. - When the rainfall in Libya is less than 180 mm, it can be described as a drought situation. We identify a drought event by its effects on different types of systems, namely agriculture, water resources, ecology, forestry, economy, etc. There is a critical difference between “drought” and “aridity.” For better understanding, please review the definitions: • Aridity or dry Climate is a permanent characteristic of a climate that refers to areas with low rainfall and high evaporation. • Drought is a temporary meteorological -climatic phenomenon, although repeated over time. So, we can mention that a drought is a meteorological event, but aridity is a climatological one. It has unique characteristics every time a drought occurs, including High air temperature, Strong winds, low relative humidity, occurrence time is associated with different stages of plant growth, and the degree of the rainfall impact on changing drought conditions in terms of intensity and frequency. Two significant factors can affect drought damages, namely environmental factors and human factors. The environmental factors are the Climate of the region, soil moisture status, Soil type, Plant cover, amount of rainfall in the form of snow, kind of rainfall, groundwater level, etc. The human factors are laws related to the exploitation of water resources, population and its dispersion, community development and economic, social and cultural growth, water quality standards, cultivation pattern and activity of the agricultural sector, The amount of water consumption in industry and water recovery in this sector, general water consumption pattern (drinking, green space, etc.), etc. Tags: drought definitions, drought effects, differences between drought and aridity - meteorological drought, types of drought, hydrological drought, agricultural drought, what are drought indices, causes of drought, different types of drought, what is the definition of drought - what is drought drought causes and effects, drought definition, drought event, drought, causes and effects of drought, effects of drought, California drought

What are Drought Types? Characteristics of Drought | Drought Indices

Drought Tools in AgriMetSoft: Playlist in AgriMetSoft: Drought Lesson Videos: What are #Drought_Types? #Characteristics_of_Drought | #Drought_Indices === 1- What are #drought Types? We have four types of drought: #meteorological_drought, #agricultural_drought, #hydrological_drought, and socio-economic drought. All kinds of droughts begin from a deficiency of precipitation and start as meteorological droughts. 2- What are the Characteristics of drought? Three fundamental parameters are necessary to characterize a drought include duration, severity, and intensity. The duration of a drought refers to how long the water deficit continues? And it precisely equals the number of months (or any time scale) between a drought's start and end. The severity presents the degree of the deficit. Indeed, it represents by the ratio of the severity to the duration. Another critical concept that helps us to monitor drought is "frequency." The frequency shows us the number of drought events within a given period. We can define it by dividing the number of drought events by the total number of years of the study period. 3- What are drought indices? One of the most significant elements of an effective drought monitoring and early warning system is drought indices. We can quantify a drought event by assimilating data from one or several variables such as precipitation and temperature into a single numerical value. Drought indices are valuable and applicable tools for quantifying a drought event. There are different criteria for a drought index, but Friedman (1957) and Wilhite (2002) have stated five curtail criteria for a drought index (watch the video). We have two primary sources of drought indices, namely Data-driven Drought Indices (e.g., SPI, PDSI, RAI, EDI, KBDI, etc.) and Satellite-based drought indices (e.g., NDVI, NDWI, VCI, WSVI, NDDI, etc.). 4- Which Sources of Data are available to calculate drought indices? There are different sources of data for computing drought indices, including: A- In-situ data (such as meteorological station, climatological station, agricultural station, etc.) B- Gridded Dataset (such as AgMERRA, MERRA, CRU, etc.) C- Satellite Data & Products (such as MODIS, AVHRR, LandSat, etc.) D-GCM Data (such as CMIP5, CMIP6, etc.) Tags: what are drought types, drought types, types of drought, what is drought, hydrological drought meteorological drought, agricultural drought, different types of drought, characterize of drought characteristics of drought, drought indices - drought characteristics, how many types of drought, causes of drought, effects of drought, ecological drought, socio-economic drought, what are the characteristics of drought,what are drought indices,calculate drought indices

What are the Meteorological Drought Indices and Drought Classification

#Drought Tools in AgriMetSoft: Playlist in AgriMetSoft: #Drought_Lesson Videos: Meteorological #Drought_Indices and #Drought_Classification === What is Meteorological Drought's definition? What are Meteorological_Drought Indexes? What are rain-based Meteorological #Drought_Indices? What is the Drought Classification concept? The American Meteorological Society (1997) groups drought definitions and types into four categories: meteorological or climatological, agricultural, hydrological, and socioeconomic. The definitions of meteorological drought are location-specific since normal precipitation is a function of the climate. Some definitions of meteorological drought focus on the length of time since the last precipitation event (number of consecutive dry days). In contrast, others focus on the magnitude of the precipitation departure from usual. Meteorological drought focuses on the deviation of local water balance from normal conditions. Meteorological drought refers to a lack of rainfall compared to long-term means. Drought characterization is typically done with the help of drought indices. Drought indices are tools that combine different datasets into a single number which aids decision-making in water resources planning (Adnan, 2017). Most drought indexes are based on meteorological or hydrological variables. To decrease the impact and loss caused by drought, it is vital to obtain real-time information on the occurrence, scope, intensity, duration, and impact of drought. We have three different kinds of meteorological drought indices: 1) Rain-based drought indices that include SPI (Standardized Precipitation Index), DI (Deciles Index), EDI (Effective Drought Index), PI (Percentile Index), CZI (China-Z index), MCZI (Modified CZI), RAI (Rainfall Anomaly Index), and Z-Score index. These indices only need rainfall data as input data for calculating meteorological drought. 2) The second type includes SPEI (Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index) and RDI (Reconnaissance Drought Index), which need Evapotranspiration data besides precipitation data, and 3) The third group consists of PDSI (Palmer Drought Severity Index) and KBDI (Keetch-Byram Drought Index) that need temperature and other data beside rainfall data. All types of drought originate from a deficiency of precipitation that results in a water shortage for some activity or some group (Wilhite and Glantz 1985). Fortunately, rainfall is an accurate and more commonly available element over a long period of record. We have another concept entitled "Main drought classification," in which we can denote five main categories for the drought classification, namely D0 (abnormally dry), D1 (moderate drought), D2 (severe drought), D3 (Extreme drought), and D4 (exceptional drought) Tags: what is drought classification,agricultural drought,meteorological drought indices,drought indices,effective drought index,calculate drought indices,drought characterization,standardized precipitation index,what are drought indices,types of drought,different types of drought,meteorological drought type,meteorological drought monitor,meteorological drought classes,meteorological drought,meteorological drought monitoring, class of drought,drought classification

How to Calculate Simple Moving Average in Excel | SMA in Time Series

How to Calculate Simple #Moving_Average in #Excel #SMA #Time_Series === In this video, we're going to learn how to calculate a simple moving average in Excel. This is a common technique used to track the trend of a time series. We'll start by calculating the simple moving average for the data in column A. Then, we'll use the SUM function to add up the values in column A and divide the result by the number of columns in column A. Finally, we'll use the STDEV.POP function to find the standard deviation of the data. This video is a helpful guide that will teach you how to calculate a simple moving average in Excel. If you're a data analyst or someone who needs to track the trend of data, then this video is a must-watch Smoothing of data series is a popular method in different fields of study and sciences, and there are various approaches to implement it. The clearest type of data smoothing is a simple moving average. The simple moving average is a favorite technical index. This formula is also a key belief to engineering and mathematical studies. The moving averages can be used to identify the direction of the trend or define potential support and resistance levels. A simple moving average smooths out volatility and makes it easier to view the variable trend. Simple moving averages are often used to determine trend direction. If the Simple moving average is moving up, the trend is up. If the Simple moving average is moving down, the trend is down. There are two popular ways for calculating the Simple moving average formula. Both of them are presented by two simple samples. With watch the video you can easily find out that “How can we calculate Simple moving average formula"? Tags: moving average,simple moving average,moving averages,moving average explained,calculate moving average,excel moving average,calculate simple moving average,how to calculate simple moving average,calculate simple moving average tutorial,how to calculate simple moving average tutorial,how to calculate moving average,moving average indicator,simple moving average tutorial,moving average tutorial,moving average excel,moving average method,moving average time series

Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) Classification | SPI Time Scale

#Drought Tools in AgriMetSoft: Playlist in AgriMetSoft: #Drought_Lesson Videos: #Standardized_Precipitation Index (SPI) Classification | #SPI Time Scale === What is the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) as a meteorological #drought_index? Drought is a creeping phenomenon, making an accurate prediction of either its onset or end difficult. Therefore, different drought indices are developed to help us monitor and analyze drought. Thomas B McKee and his colleagues at Colorado State University (McKee et al., 1993, 1995) defined the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) is widely used worldwide in drought analysis. It is known as the most straightforward index that needs monthly precipitation data. The SPI was developed to address some of the problems inherent in the PDSI. McKee designed the SPI to be a relatively simple year-round index. The SPI is flexible and can be calculated for different time scales for monitoring drought. The SPI is supposed to be spatially and temporally comparable. Standardized Precipitation Index timescales: Calculating the SPI for the specified period for any location requires long-term monthly precipitation data for at least 30 years. The SPI allows using precipitation for different time scales which are commonly taken as 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 months. Standardized Precipitation Index Classification: Drought periods are represented by relatively high negative deviations. Normally, the drought part of the SPI range is arbitrary split into moderately dry (-1.0 > SPI > -1.49), severely dry (-1.5 > SPI > -1.99) and extremely dry conditions (SPI < -2.0). A drought event starts when the SPI value reaches -1.0 and ends when SPI becomes positive again. By watching this video, you can find the answer to the following questions: What are rain-based Meteorological Drought Indices? What is the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI)? What is Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) Classification? Visit the below links for a better understanding: Playlist in AgriMetSoft: Drought Lesson Videos: The following papers can assist you in reviewing your understanding of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI): Tags: spi index,standardized precipitation index time scale,standardized precipitation index,spi,standardized precipitation index classification,spi classification,spi drought index,spi drought index calculation,drought index calculation,standard precipitation index,drought index calculator,drought indices,drought index spi,standard precipitation index formula,spi index drought,spi drought,meteorological drought spi,what is the standardized precipitation index

Compute the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for a large number of weather stations

#Drought Tool in AgriMetSoft: Playlist in AgriMetSoft: #Drought_Lesson Videos: Compute the #Palmer_Drought Severity Index (#PDSI) for a large number of weather stations === You can use the DMAP software to calculate the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for a large number of weather stations. DMAP is a valuable tool for processing and analyzing climate data, including precipitation and temperature data, which is a key input for PDSI calculations. In this tutorial, we'll show you how to compute the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for a large number of weather stations. The DMAP is a useful tool for monitoring drought conditions. We'll show you how to compute PDSI for a large number of weather stations using DMAP. This tutorial is useful for anyone who wants to know how to use the PDSI tool for drought monitoring. Tags: pdsi,palmer drought severity index,calculate pdsi,calculate pdsi in excel,how to calculate pdsi,drought index,calculate palmer drought severity index,palmer drought severity index calculation,how to calculate palmer drought severity index,drought index calculation,standardized precipitation index,pdsi weather stations,drought,severe drought,california drought